Louise Erdrich, Future Home of the Living God

Erdrich, Louise. Future Home of the Living God. HarperCollins, 2017.

Summary of Work
Cedar is insistent that she is going to go meet her birth mother on the reservation for the Ojibwe people, but her adoptive mother and father, Sarah and Glen, are worried about her going. There is social unrest, and it may collapse the nation. Still, she insists on going, and she meets her family and tells them that she’s four months pregnant. She met a man at her Church and they unexpectedly fell in love and slept with each other in the basement of the church after a performance of the nativity. Everyone is happy for her, but also worried.

Evolution has started running backwards, and there are rumors that pregnant women have children who are primitive versions of humans. Soon, the government mandates through a new addition to the Patriot Act that all women are to turn themselves in and if they do so voluntarily, they will be given the best rooms and care in the hospitals. Cedar locks herself in her house with provisions and tradable goods, mainly cigarettes and booze, and does not leave the house. She notices that all of a sudden, there are no brown skinned people in the news or on TV anymore, and she wonders if there are any left outside either. Her partner, Mike, keeps calling but she won’t answer, so he comes over and pounds on the door until she lets him in. They talk, and he tells her that he wants to stay with her and protect her because the government is now offering rewards for turning in pregnant women. Cedar goes nearly insane being forced to stay inside, and she convinces Mike to let her go with him to get Subway sandwiches. While she is sitting in the car, she watches the cops take a pregnant woman off the street and beat her husband while their daughter looks on and bystanders hide her. It traumatizes Cedar, and she stays inside. She accidentally lets herself be seen by the mailman Hero, but he hides her and tells her to stay inside because the government officials will catch her.

By this time the US proper has dissolved and all governments are regionally run; all street signs are renamed biblical verses. Mike forges marriage papers for them so he can register their home. Meanwhile, a mysterious woman who calls herself Mother keeps popping up on Cedar’s computer screen, even after they unplug the internet, bury their cell phones, and break the computer. One day, Mike leaves, and a woman forcibly enters the home and steals Cedar away. She is forced into a hospital, where they drug her. When her roommate Agnes tells her to stop taking her “vitamins,” she comes to and realizes how terrible her condition is. She watches Agnes try to break out and fail, and then she is whisked away to an operating room to have her child, and no one will tell Cedar what happened. She gets a new Asian roommate, who never speaks and spends her time unraveling blankets to create yarn and then a rope so they can escape out the window. Cedar helps her do this, and in the process, she learns from her mother Sarah, who is undercover trying to save pregnant women, that Mike is the one who turned her in after he was captured and tortured. Sarah helps them escape, but not before they have to murder a nurse to save themselves. Tia, the Asian roommate, has her baby in a cave, but it is stillborn. When they emerge from the cave, Tia insists that she go back with her husband because she is no longer pregnant and not a target, and Sarah takes Cedar to the reservation, where Eddie, Cedar’s stepfather, is now government head.

She is happy there, despite her confinement, and she feels safe. Sarah is upset over her daughter’s pregnancy, and also reveals that Glen is actually her biological father; it was one of his short-livid dalliances. Eddie gets Cedar forged tribal papers and gives her back her birth name: Mary Potts. Then, one night when she is sleeping on her half-sister’s floor, she hears someone come in. She hides in the mess of clothes on the floor, and is hidden so well that when the woman, who sounds just like the woman from the computer screen, comes in the room search for her, she cannot find her. Soon after that, things spiral downward. She has been going out now and again with tribal family members because Eddie has guaranteed that the government is not taking the tribal women because they are protected. In fact, Eddie has been reclaiming original tribal lands with success. But one night Mike comes and gets her and asks her to go with him. He explains that she is highly valued because she is carrying one of the originals, an untainted genetic child, and if she goes with him they can start their own following and government. She says he is crazy, and he leaves without her. Then, when she and her biological mother are praying at the statue of a saint, Cedar is again kidnapped, this time by poor travelers who are in need of money and want to turn her in for the reward.

Cedar is placed in a prison facility in Stillwater, which serves as an insemination facility. She learns that women are being picked up for minor or imagined infractions if they are of childbearing age and being forcibly inseminated. They are all required to have their pictures taken, and Cedar comes to learn that is because when they die, which they all do from pregnancy complications caused by the reverse evolution, their pictures are put up on a wall in the commons area. During one of her appointments she meets a woman who had helped her to escape the first time, but she realizes that this time there will be no escape. Instead, she asks Jesse to look after her baby, which she promises to do. Cedar gives birth successfully, but she barely gets to see her child, and her heart is damaged from the delivery and she barely survives. When she recovers, she is not released from the facility, as was originally promised, but forcibly inseminated. The story ends with her still writing her story to her child, who she hopes will someday read her story.

Discussion of Work
While largely considered a failure of a novel for Louise Erdrich, the novel does pose some intriguing questions about female reproductive rights. A dystopic science fiction novel, the narrative explores the personhood of women at a time when the species is endangered. Women become objects rather than people, first promised some sort of decent care for turning themselves in if pregnant, and then having the tables turned on them as the situation worsens. One of the important points which is subtly noted throughout the novel is that the majority of the women who are taken are people of color: white people are largely exempt from the government mandates, although white people who find a problem with the forcible detainment and insemination of women are eliminated or forced into the system.

While it is not fully pursued, the issue of dual identity is broached. It is only when Cedar decides that she wants to embrace her full identity that, that identity is stripped from her, as she is stripped of the chance to learn more than she does. The novel is an experiment with female identity: is it motherhood, fertility, sex, or something altogether different? This is also a set of questions asked about the children these women are forced to have: what will their status be? Will they be treated similarly to how we treat endangered animal species? Global warming and how humans change nature is another subtle theme, with a discussion of how the situation came to be. The change started when there was no more winter and the glaciers were gone, the continental ice and permafrost releasing bacteria or some sort of toxin into the air which causes the reverse evolution.

This is also a discussion of how the world ends, which, as Cedar keeps being surprised over, is not very chaotic. People keep going about their daily lives and adapting to the biological changes to their food and the environment around them. Essentially, the world does not go out violently, but quietly, with only one specific group of people, women of childbearing age, affected by the reproduction issue.

Shirley Jackson, “The Lottery”

Jackson, Shirley. “The Lottery.” 40 Short Stories: A Portable Anthology,

       Third Edition. Ed. Beverly Lawn. Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.

Summary of Work 
A crowd of children are gathered waiting for adults to arrive in the town square. The little boys are gathering stones into a large pile and the girls are talking quietly to one another. It is the day of the town lottery, which has been held for longer than anyone in the town can remember. A little town of only 300 people, they meet every year to hold this lottery before the summer crop. Much of the ritual has been forgotten, but it involves a big black box full of wood chips, now papers, that every household draws from. There used to be a song or ritual of choosing the person who ran the lottery, but now it is just a swearing in. As all the townspeople get there and Mr. Summers is being sworn in, Mrs. Hutchinson arrives. She nearly forgot the lottery while she was washing dishes. Roll call is taken, and others volunteer to draw for those unable to attend. Mrs. Dunbar and Mrs. Hutchinson talk about how in many towns they are talking about getting rid of the lottery, and that many have already gotten rid of it. The townspeople talk about how ludicrous that is, and say that people, especially the younger generation, have no love for tradition anymore. Every head of household draws their papers, and when they open them, it is revealed that Mr. Hutchinson has the black spot on his paper. Mrs. Hutchinson protests that everyone didn’t give her husband enough time to draw and that it isn’t fair. But the lottery director asks how many are in the household, and he takes the black spot paper from Mr. Hutchinson and a number of white papers and puts them back in the box. Each member of the family draws from the box and then they open their papers, starting with the children. Mrs. Hutchinson has the black spot on the paper. She starts screaming and protesting, but the villagers have already formed a circle around her, having grabbed rocks from the pile that the boys built, and they start throwing rocks at her to kill her.

Brief Note on Themes
This story feels like a dystopia, with the population controlled and religion and tradition maintained through ritualized killing. There is very little backstory to this short story, and that in some ways increases the questions and thrilling drama and suspense of the story. It raises questions of the value of tradition, but it also raises questions about morality and human love and care. The villagers even have Mrs. Hutchinson’s baby boy throw rocks at her to stone her to death, and all of her children and even her husband participate in the ritual with no seeming care or love or regret that they are doing so. The story seems to suggest that morals are by and large culturally determined by a group and those rituals and morals are maintained regardless of the knowledge of where they come from. Much like when new ideas come forward and people object to them but can’t tell you why, the people of the town cannot imagine a world where this ritual sacrifice does not exist, believing that it helps with crop cycles. When morals or ethics are derived from cultural group decisions, especially from many generations past, how do we judge evolution or determining what is right? Here, ritualized murder is right, as it has been in historical cultures. While we may consider it barbaric today, for some cultures it was part of life. For me, the short story has us call into consideration what it is that constitutes societal standards and social morals and rituals. It is key to knowing how and why we act as we do, as individuals, as communities. And it calls into question if there are certain morals or rules that are always right, and ones that should never be broken or deviated from. Is murder ever okay? Are family groups and love superseded by the needs of the community, or should we always stick with family and have protective instincts for them? Those seem to be the two largest questions regarding moral pillars that come to mind.